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NFS网络文件系统实时文件共享,从零开始搭建高
分类:操作系统

在给别人使用GUEST用户登陆使用共享目录,并在电脑上已将guest用户启用,但是报“登录失败:未授予用户在此计算机上的请求登录类型”

目标:

NFS网络文件系统

如果大家觉得Samba服务程序的配置太麻烦了,那么你共享文件的主机都是Linux系统,那么推荐大家在客户端部署nfs服务来共享文件.nfs(网络文件系统)服务可以将远程Linux系统上的文件共享资源挂载到本地主机的目录上,从而使得本地主机客户端基于TCP/IP协议,像是用本地主机上的资源那样读写远程Linux系统上的共享文件.

图片 1

  Tomcat+Nginx+Memcached

实验环境

主机 操作系统 IP地址
NFS服务器 RHEL7.4 192.168.56.15
NFS客户端 CentOS7.4 192.168.56.5

 

  Ubuntu 16.04 64位测试通过

前期准备这里我把防火墙以及selinux都给关闭了.

1 安装 NFS-Server 使用 yum install nfs-utils rpcbind -y 命令.

[root@qdlinux ~]# yum install -y nfs-utils rpcbind
Loaded plugins: product-id, search-disabled-repos, subscription-manager
This system is not registered with an entitlement server. You can use subscription-manager to register.
dvd                                                                                       | 4.1 kB  00:00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.3.0-0.48.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: gssproxy >= 0.7.0-3 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libtirpc >= 0.2.4-0.7 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libevent for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libnfsidmap for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: quota for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libevent-2.0.so.5()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libnfsidmap.so.0()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libtirpc.so.1()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
---> Package rpcbind.x86_64 0:0.2.0-42.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package gssproxy.x86_64 0:0.7.0-4.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libini_config.so.3(INI_CONFIG_1.1.0)(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libini_config.so.3(INI_CONFIG_1.2.0)(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libref_array.so.1(REF_ARRAY_0.1.1)(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libverto-module-base for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libbasicobjects.so.0()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libcollection.so.2()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libini_config.so.3()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libref_array.so.1()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
---> Package libevent.x86_64 0:2.0.21-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package libnfsidmap.x86_64 0:0.25-17.el7 will be installed
---> Package libtirpc.x86_64 0:0.2.4-0.10.el7 will be installed
---> Package quota.x86_64 1:4.01-14.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: quota-nls = 1:4.01-14.el7 for package: 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: tcp_wrappers for package: 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libbasicobjects.x86_64 0:0.1.1-27.el7 will be installed
---> Package libcollection.x86_64 0:0.6.2-27.el7 will be installed
---> Package libini_config.x86_64 0:1.3.0-27.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libpath_utils.so.1(PATH_UTILS_0.2.1)(64bit) for package: libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libpath_utils.so.1()(64bit) for package: libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64
---> Package libref_array.x86_64 0:0.1.5-27.el7 will be installed
---> Package libverto-tevent.x86_64 0:0.2.5-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package quota-nls.noarch 1:4.01-14.el7 will be installed
---> Package tcp_wrappers.x86_64 0:7.6-77.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libpath_utils.x86_64 0:0.2.1-27.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=================================================================================================================
 Package                        Arch                  Version                           Repository          Size
=================================================================================================================
Installing:
 nfs-utils                      x86_64                1:1.3.0-0.48.el7                  dvd                398 k
 rpcbind                        x86_64                0.2.0-42.el7                      dvd                 59 k
Installing for dependencies:
 gssproxy                       x86_64                0.7.0-4.el7                       dvd                105 k
 libbasicobjects                x86_64                0.1.1-27.el7                      dvd                 25 k
 libcollection                  x86_64                0.6.2-27.el7                      dvd                 41 k
 libevent                       x86_64                2.0.21-4.el7                      dvd                214 k
 libini_config                  x86_64                1.3.0-27.el7                      dvd                 63 k
 libnfsidmap                    x86_64                0.25-17.el7                       dvd                 49 k
 libpath_utils                  x86_64                0.2.1-27.el7                      dvd                 27 k
 libref_array                   x86_64                0.1.5-27.el7                      dvd                 26 k
 libtirpc                       x86_64                0.2.4-0.10.el7                    dvd                 89 k
 libverto-tevent                x86_64                0.2.5-4.el7                       dvd                9.0 k
 quota                          x86_64                1:4.01-14.el7                     dvd                179 k
 quota-nls                      noarch                1:4.01-14.el7                     dvd                 91 k
 tcp_wrappers                   x86_64                7.6-77.el7                        dvd                 79 k

Transaction Summary
=================================================================================================================
Install  2 Packages (+13 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 1.4 M
Installed size: 4.1 M
Downloading packages:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                            2.5 MB/s | 1.4 MB  00:00:00     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : libref_array-0.1.5-27.el7.x86_64                                                             1/15 
  Installing : libcollection-0.6.2-27.el7.x86_64                                                            2/15 
  Installing : libbasicobjects-0.1.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                          3/15 
  Installing : libtirpc-0.2.4-0.10.el7.x86_64                                                               4/15 
  Installing : rpcbind-0.2.0-42.el7.x86_64                                                                  5/15 
  Installing : 1:quota-nls-4.01-14.el7.noarch                                                               6/15 
  Installing : libpath_utils-0.2.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                            7/15 
  Installing : libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64                                                            8/15 
  Installing : tcp_wrappers-7.6-77.el7.x86_64                                                               9/15 
  Installing : 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64                                                                  10/15 
  Installing : libevent-2.0.21-4.el7.x86_64                                                                11/15 
  Installing : libnfsidmap-0.25-17.el7.x86_64                                                              12/15 
  Installing : libverto-tevent-0.2.5-4.el7.x86_64                                                          13/15 
  Installing : gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64                                                                 14/15 
  Installing : 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64                                                           15/15 
  Verifying  : libverto-tevent-0.2.5-4.el7.x86_64                                                           1/15 
  Verifying  : rpcbind-0.2.0-42.el7.x86_64                                                                  2/15 
  Verifying  : 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64                                                                   3/15 
  Verifying  : libtirpc-0.2.4-0.10.el7.x86_64                                                               4/15 
  Verifying  : libnfsidmap-0.25-17.el7.x86_64                                                               5/15 
  Verifying  : libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64                                                            6/15 
  Verifying  : libbasicobjects-0.1.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                          7/15 
  Verifying  : libevent-2.0.21-4.el7.x86_64                                                                 8/15 
  Verifying  : tcp_wrappers-7.6-77.el7.x86_64                                                               9/15 
  Verifying  : libpath_utils-0.2.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                           10/15 
  Verifying  : 1:quota-nls-4.01-14.el7.noarch                                                              11/15 
  Verifying  : gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64                                                                 12/15 
  Verifying  : libcollection-0.6.2-27.el7.x86_64                                                           13/15 
  Verifying  : libref_array-0.1.5-27.el7.x86_64                                                            14/15 
  Verifying  : 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64                                                           15/15 

Installed:
  nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.3.0-0.48.el7                         rpcbind.x86_64 0:0.2.0-42.el7                        

Dependency Installed:
  gssproxy.x86_64 0:0.7.0-4.el7        libbasicobjects.x86_64 0:0.1.1-27.el7 libcollection.x86_64 0:0.6.2-27.el7
  libevent.x86_64 0:2.0.21-4.el7       libini_config.x86_64 0:1.3.0-27.el7   libnfsidmap.x86_64 0:0.25-17.el7   
  libpath_utils.x86_64 0:0.2.1-27.el7  libref_array.x86_64 0:0.1.5-27.el7    libtirpc.x86_64 0:0.2.4-0.10.el7   
  libverto-tevent.x86_64 0:0.2.5-4.el7 quota.x86_64 1:4.01-14.el7            quota-nls.noarch 1:4.01-14.el7     
  tcp_wrappers.x86_64 0:7.6-77.el7    

Complete!

2 启动 NFS-Server

[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl start rpcbind
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl enable rpcbind
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl start nfs-server.service 
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl enable nfs-server.service 
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nfs-server.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/nfs-server.service.

启动和启用NFS服务程序,由于在使用NFS服务进行文件共享之前,需要使用RPC(Remote Procedure Call,远程过程调用),服务将NFS服务器的IP地址和端口号等信息发送给客户端.因此,在启动NFS服务之前,还需要顺带重启并启动rpcbind服务,这里将两个服务一并加入到开机启动项中.

3 可以使用 rpcbind -p 查看一下注册的信息.

[root@qdlinux ~]# rpcinfo -p
   program vers proto   port  service
    100000    4   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    4   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
    100024    1   udp  43946  status
    100024    1   tcp  38188  status
    100005    1   udp  20048  mountd
    100005    1   tcp  20048  mountd
    100005    2   udp  20048  mountd
    100005    2   tcp  20048  mountd
    100005    3   udp  20048  mountd
    100005    3   tcp  20048  mountd
    100003    3   tcp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   tcp   2049  nfs
    100227    3   tcp   2049  nfs_acl
    100003    3   udp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   udp   2049  nfs
    100227    3   udp   2049  nfs_acl
    100021    1   udp  35724  nlockmgr
    100021    3   udp  35724  nlockmgr
    100021    4   udp  35724  nlockmgr
    100021    1   tcp  44097  nlockmgr
    100021    3   tcp  44097  nlockmgr
    100021    4   tcp  44097  nlockmgr

4 查看系统相关进程信息

[root@qdlinux ~]# ps -ef | egrep "rpc|nfs"
rpc        1959      1  0 16:37 ?        00:00:00 /sbin/rpcbind -w
rpcuser    2039      1  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.statd
root       2047      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [rpciod]
root       2057      1  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.mountd
root       2058      1  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.idmapd
root       2068      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd4_callbacks]
root       2074      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2075      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2076      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2077      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2078      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2079      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2080      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2081      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2135   1633  0 16:52 pts/0    00:00:00 grep -E --color=auto rpc|nfs

5 NFS服务端配置共享目录

参数 作用
ro 只读
rw 读写
root_squash 当NFS客户端以root管理员访问时,映射为NFS服务器的匿名用户
no_root_squash 当NFS客户端以root管理员访问时,映射为NFS服务器的root管理员
all_squash 无论NFS客户端使用什么账户访问,均映射为NFS服务器的匿名用户
sync 同时将数据写入到内存与硬盘中,保证不丢失数据
async 优先将数据保存到内存,然后再写入到硬盘,这样效率更高,但可能会丢失数据
[root@qdlinux ~]# vim /etc/exports
/nfsfile 192.168.56.*(rw,sync,all_squash)

//创建需要共享的目录
[root@qdlinux ~]# mkdir /nfsfile

[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl restart nfs-server.service 
[root@qdlinux ~]# cat /var/lib/nfs/etab 
/nfsfile    192.168.56.*(rw,sync,wdelay,hide,nocrossmnt,secure,root_squash,all_squash,no_subtree_check,secure_locks,acl,no_pnfs,anonuid=65534,anongid=65534,sec=sys,secure,root_squash,all_squash)

//查看一下id=65534是哪一个用户
[root@qdlinux ~]# grep "65534" /etc/passwd
nfsnobody:x:65534:65534:Anonymous NFS User:/var/lib/nfs:/sbin/nologin

//修改一下`/nfsfile`的权限,这里也可以把目录所属主和所属组改为nfsnobody或者直接给成777权限
[root@qdlinux ~]# chmod -Rf nfsnobody:nfsnobody /nfsfile/

//在目录下写入一个文件用于测试
[root@qdlinux ~]# echo "welecome to qdlinux" > /nfsfile/readme
[root@qdlinux ~]# ll  /nfsfile/
total 4
-rw-r--rwx 1 root root 20 Aug 16 17:30 readme
[root@qdlinux ~]# 

NFS客户端的配置步骤十分简单,先使用 showmount 命令查询NFS服务器的远程共享信息,其输出格式为"共享的目录名称 允许使用客户端地址".

参数 作用
-e 显示NFS服务器的共享李彪
-a 显示本机挂载的文件资源的情况
-v 显示版本号
[root@qdlinux ~]# showmount -e 192.168.56.15
Export list for 192.168.56.15:
/nfsfile 192.168.56.*

6 客户端测试

[root@qdlinux ~]# yum install nfs-utils rpcbind -y
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl start rpcbind
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl is-enabled rpcbind
enabled
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl is-active rpcbind
active

//查询一下服务是否运行
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl status rpcbind
● rpcbind.service - RPC bind service
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/rpcbind.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2018-08-16 14:05:32 CST; 3h 48min ago
 Main PID: 568 (rpcbind)
    Tasks: 1
   CGroup: /system.slice/rpcbind.service
           └─568 /sbin/rpcbind -w

Aug 16 14:05:27 qdlinux.com systemd[1]: Starting RPC bind service...
Aug 16 14:05:32 qdlinux.com systemd[1]: Started RPC bind service.

//在客户端使用`showmount -e`命令查询一下
[root@qdlinux ~]# showmount -e 192.168.56.15 NFS服务器共享列表
Export list for 192.168.56.15:
/nfsfile 192.168.56.*

7 NFS客户端挂载

在NFS客户端创建一个挂在目录,使用mount命令加-t参数,指定要挂在的文件系统的类型,并在命令后面写上服务器的IP地址、服务器上的共享目录以及要挂载到本地系统(客户端)的目录.

[root@qdlinux /]# mkdir /data
[root@qdlinux /]# mount -t nfs 192.168.56.15:/nfsfile /data

//现在已经挂载成功了,可以看到在NFS服务器上创建的文件了.

如果希望NFS文件共享服务能一直有效,需要将其写入到 fstab 文件中.

[root@qdlinux data]# vim /etc/fstab
192.168.56.15:/nfsfile                    /data                   nfs     defaults        0 0

1 如果NFS服务器宕机,强制卸载umount -lf /data
2 [root@qdlinux data]# umount /data
  umount.nfs4: /data: device is busy
  出现这种情况时,退出挂载目录然后在卸载

8 autofs自动挂载服务

autofs服务程序是一种Linux系统守护进程,当检测到用户试图去访问一个尚未挂载的文件系统时,将自动挂载该文件系统,我们将挂载信息写入/etc/fstab文件后,系统在每次开机时都自动将其挂载,而autofs自动挂载服务是用户需要使用该文件系统时才会去动态挂载,从而节约了网络资源和服务器的硬件资源.

[root@qdlinux /]# yum install autofs -y

直接挂载方式,本地的挂载点是绝对路径

[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/auto.master.d/nfs.autofs
/-      /etc/auto.nfs_direct
[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/auto.nfs_direct 
/data   -rw,sync,soft   192.168.56.15:/nfsfile

//mount查看一下
/etc/auto.nfs_direct on /data type autofs (rw,relatime,fd=18,pgrp=6217,timeout=300,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct,pipe_ino=79495)

间接挂载方式

[root@qdlinux ~]# mkdir -p /public/share
[root@qdlinux ~]# chown -Rf nfsnobody:nfsnobody /public/share
[root@qdlinux ~]# vim /etc/exports
/public/share 192.168.56.*(rw,sync,all_squash)
//重新启动nfs-server

[root@qdlinux ~]# showmount -e 192.168.56.15
Export list for 192.168.56.15:
/public/share 192.168.56.*
/nfsfile      192.168.56.*

[root@qdlinux /]# mkdir /test
[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/auto.master.d/share.autofs
/test  /etc/share.nfs_share
[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/share.nfs_share
*       -rw,sync,soft   192.168.56.15:/public/&
//重新启动autofs服务

现在可以访问了,客户端当你切换到/test/share时可以创建文件服务端实时同步.

解决方法:

  动静分类、负载均衡、集群、Javolution序列化、高性能、高可用

  打开“控制面板”中的“管理工具”

配置环境(目前均为最新稳定版):
  jdk-8u131-linux-x64
  apache-tomcat-8.5.14
  nginx-1.12.0
  memcached-1.4.36

图片 2

写在前面:

本文由澳门新葡亰手机版发布于操作系统,转载请注明出处:NFS网络文件系统实时文件共享,从零开始搭建高

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