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结合造型,各类内置方法
分类:编程

一、序言

在Office Word中,援助在Word文档中插入类型特别丰裕的样子,包蕴线条、矩形、基本造型(诸如圆形、多边形、星形、括号、笑颜等等图形)、箭头形状、公式形状、流程图、旗帜图形、表明图形等等,我们在编制程序进程中,想要在Word中绘制分化品类的图形,能够经过类库来操作。控件Spire.Doc for .NET 6.0及以上版本初步援助Office Word中的全数图形,能够通过代码操作有些单后生可畏的形状,也得以经过将单纯形状举行整合来得到想要的图纸或形状效果,当然,也帮助本人自定义图形,通过编制程序绘制也是能够的。下边将介绍向Word绘制形状和组成形象的艺术,方法中的代码供参谋。

PS:

  • Spire.Doc for .NET收获地址
  • 安装后,dll文件可在设置路线下的Bin文件夹中拿走

Dll引用

图片 1

目录:

读<C#现身编制程序非凡实例.PDF>总计:

二、代码示例

  一、fromkeys()

  假若程序中存在大气的测度任务,并且那个任务能够分割成多少个独立的任务块,那么就应当利用并行编制程序。

(一)绘制单风流倜傥形状

步骤1:增加如下using钦命

using Spire.Doc;
using Spire.Doc.Documents;
using Spire.Doc.Fields;
using System.Drawing;

 

手续2:创制示范,加多section、paragraph

//创建一个Document实例
Document doc = new Document();
//添加一个section paragraph
 Section sec = doc.AddSection();
 Paragraph para1 = sec.AddParagraph();

 

步骤3:在文书档案钦点地点插入形状,并设置形状类型、大小、填充颜色、线条样式等

(这里大约列举多少个模样的丰富方法,方法比较容易,不做赘述,效果图中罗列了部分造型样式,供给任何样式的形象可机关安装加多)

           //插入一个矩形
            ShapeObject shape1 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Rectangle);
            shape1.FillColor = Color.Blue;
            shape1.StrokeColor = Color.LightSkyBlue;
            shape1.HorizontalPosition = 20;
            shape1.VerticalPosition = 20;

            //插入一个圆形
            ShapeObject shape2 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Ellipse);
            shape2.FillColor = Color.Purple;
            shape2.StrokeColor = Color.LightPink;
            shape2.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
            shape2.StrokeWeight = 1;
            shape2.HorizontalPosition = 80;
            shape2.VerticalPosition = 20;

            //插入一个公式符号 +
            ShapeObject shape3 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Plus);
            shape3.FillColor = Color.DarkCyan;
            shape3.StrokeColor = Color.LightGreen;
            shape3.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
            shape3.StrokeWeight = 1;
            shape3.HorizontalPosition = 140;
            shape3.VerticalPosition = 20;

            //插入一颗星形
            ShapeObject shape4 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Star);
            shape4.FillColor = Color.Red;
            shape4.StrokeColor = Color.Gold;
            shape4.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
            shape4.HorizontalPosition = 200;
            shape4.VerticalPosition = 20;

 

步骤4:保存文书档案

//保存并打开文档
doc.SaveToFile("InsertShapes.docx", FileFormat.Docx2010);
System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("InsertShapes.docx");

 

形象加多效果:

图片 2

全方位代码:

图片 3图片 4

  1 using Spire.Doc;
  2 using Spire.Doc.Documents;
  3 using Spire.Doc.Fields;
  4 using System.Drawing;
  5 
  6 namespace AddShapes_Doc
  7 {
  8     class Program
  9     {
 10         static void Main(string[] args)
 11         {
 12             //创建一个Document实例
 13             Document doc = new Document();
 14 
 15             //添加一个section paragraph
 16             Section sec = doc.AddSection();
 17             Paragraph para1 = sec.AddParagraph();
 18 
 19             //插入一个矩形
 20             ShapeObject shape1 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Rectangle);
 21             shape1.FillColor = Color.Blue;
 22             shape1.StrokeColor = Color.LightSkyBlue;
 23             shape1.HorizontalPosition = 20;
 24             shape1.VerticalPosition = 20;
 25 
 26             //插入一个圆形
 27             ShapeObject shape2 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Ellipse);
 28             shape2.FillColor = Color.Purple;
 29             shape2.StrokeColor = Color.LightPink;
 30             shape2.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 31             shape2.StrokeWeight = 1;
 32             shape2.HorizontalPosition = 80;
 33             shape2.VerticalPosition = 20;
 34 
 35             //插入一个公式符号 +
 36             ShapeObject shape3 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Plus);
 37             shape3.FillColor = Color.DarkCyan;
 38             shape3.StrokeColor = Color.LightGreen;
 39             shape3.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 40             shape3.StrokeWeight = 1;
 41             shape3.HorizontalPosition = 140;
 42             shape3.VerticalPosition = 20;
 43 
 44             //插入一颗星形
 45             ShapeObject shape4 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Star);
 46             shape4.FillColor = Color.Red;
 47             shape4.StrokeColor = Color.Gold;
 48             shape4.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 49             shape4.HorizontalPosition = 200;
 50             shape4.VerticalPosition = 20;
 51 
 52             //插入一个立方体
 53             ShapeObject shape5 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Cube);
 54             shape5.FillColor = Color.OrangeRed;
 55             shape5.StrokeColor = Color.Orange;
 56             shape5.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 57             shape5.HorizontalPosition = 260;
 58             shape5.VerticalPosition = 20;
 59 
 60             //插入一个圆柱体
 61             ShapeObject shape6 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Can);
 62             shape6.FillColor = Color.Goldenrod;
 63             shape6.StrokeColor = Color.Gold;
 64             shape6.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 65             shape6.HorizontalPosition = 320;
 66             shape6.VerticalPosition = 20;
 67 
 68             //插入一个箭头
 69             ShapeObject shape7 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Arrow);
 70             shape7.FillColor = Color.Yellow;
 71             shape7.StrokeColor = Color.Yellow;
 72             shape7.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 73             shape7.HorizontalPosition = 20;
 74             shape7.VerticalPosition = 80;
 75 
 76             //插入一个v形臂章图形
 77             ShapeObject shape8 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Chevron);
 78             shape8.FillColor = Color.YellowGreen;
 79             shape8.StrokeColor = Color.Yellow;
 80             shape8.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 81             shape8.HorizontalPosition = 80;
 82             shape8.VerticalPosition = 80;
 83 
 84             //插入一个循环箭头图形
 85             ShapeObject shape9 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.CircularArrow);
 86             shape9.FillColor = Color.Green;
 87             shape9.StrokeColor = Color.Yellow;
 88             shape9.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 89             shape9.HorizontalPosition = 140;
 90             shape9.VerticalPosition = 80;
 91 
 92             //插入一个云图形
 93             ShapeObject shape10 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.CloudCallout);
 94             shape10.FillColor = Color.LightSkyBlue;
 95             shape10.StrokeColor = Color.White;
 96             shape10.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
 97             shape10.HorizontalPosition = 200;
 98             shape10.VerticalPosition = 80;
 99 
100             //插入一个环形图
101             ShapeObject shape11 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Donut);
102             shape11.FillColor = Color.Pink;
103             shape11.StrokeColor = Color.White;
104             shape11.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
105             shape11.HorizontalPosition = 260;
106             shape11.VerticalPosition = 80;
107 
108             //插入一个波浪形状图
109             ShapeObject shape12 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.DoubleWave);
110             shape12.FillColor = Color.Plum;
111             shape12.StrokeColor = Color.White;
112             shape12.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
113             shape12.HorizontalPosition = 320;
114             shape12.VerticalPosition = 80;
115 
116             //插入一个礼结状图形
117             ShapeObject shape13 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.EllipseRibbon);
118             shape13.FillColor = Color.RosyBrown;
119             shape13.StrokeColor = Color.White;
120             shape13.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
121             shape13.HorizontalPosition = 20;
122             shape13.VerticalPosition = 140;
123 
124             //插入一个心形图
125             ShapeObject shape14 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Heart);
126             shape14.FillColor = Color.Red;
127             shape14.StrokeColor = Color.White;
128             shape14.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
129             shape14.HorizontalPosition = 80;
130             shape14.VerticalPosition = 140;
131 
132             //插入一个六边形图形
133             ShapeObject shape15 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Hexagon);
134             shape15.FillColor = Color.DarkCyan;
135             shape15.StrokeColor = Color.White;
136             shape15.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
137             shape15.HorizontalPosition = 140;
138             shape15.VerticalPosition = 140;
139 
140             //插入一个不规则图形
141             ShapeObject shape16 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.IrregularSeal1);
142             shape16.FillColor = Color.DeepPink;
143             shape16.StrokeColor = Color.White;
144             shape16.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
145             shape16.HorizontalPosition = 200;
146             shape16.VerticalPosition = 140;
147 
148             //插入一个月亮形状
149             ShapeObject shape17 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.Moon);
150             shape17.FillColor = Color.Violet;
151             shape17.StrokeColor = Color.White;
152             shape17.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
153             shape17.HorizontalPosition = 260;
154             shape17.VerticalPosition = 140;
155 
156             //插入一个"禁止"形状
157             ShapeObject shape18 = para1.AppendShape(50, 50, ShapeType.NoSmoking);
158             shape18.FillColor = Color.Yellow;
159             shape18.StrokeColor = Color.Goldenrod;
160             shape18.LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single;
161             shape18.HorizontalPosition = 320;
162             shape18.VerticalPosition = 140;
163 
164             //保存并打开文档
165             doc.SaveToFile("InsertShapes.docx", FileFormat.Docx2010);
166             System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("InsertShapes.docx");
167         }
168     }
169 }

View Code

 

  二、keys()、values()、items()

  并行编制程序可压实CPU利用率。

(二)加多组合造型

手续1:增添如下using指令

using Spire.Doc;
using Spire.Doc.Documents;
using Spire.Doc.Fields;
using System.Drawing;

 

手续2:成立文书档案,增加section、paragraph

Document doc = new Document();
Section sec = doc.AddSection();
Paragraph para1 = sec.AddParagraph();

 

步骤3:添Gavin字,并运用格式到文字

para1.AppendText("中日文化交流");
ParagraphStyle style1 = new ParagraphStyle(doc);
style1.Name = "titleStyle";
style1.CharacterFormat.Bold = true;
style1.CharacterFormat.FontName = "隶书";
style1.CharacterFormat.FontSize = 30f;
doc.Styles.Add(style1);
para1.ApplyStyle("titleStyle");
para1.Format.HorizontalAlignment = HorizontalAlignment.Center;

 

手续4:实例化段落2,并创制三个造型组合,并安装大小

//实例化段落2
Paragraph para2 = sec.AddParagraph();
//创建一个形状组合并设置大小
ShapeGroup shapegr = para2.AppendShapeGroup(300, 300);

 

手续5:绘制三个华夏国旗,这里必要整合造型矩形和五角星形,并填写相应的颜料

 //添加一个矩形到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Rectangle)
            {
                Width = 900,
                Height = 500,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Red,
                StrokeColor = Color.Red,                
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });

            //添加第一个五角星到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
            {
                Width = 100,
                Height = 100,
                VerticalPosition = 90,
                HorizontalPosition = 90,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });
            //添加第二个五角星到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
            {
                Width = 50,
                Height = 50,
                VerticalPosition = 40,
                HorizontalPosition = 210,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });
            //添加第三个五角星到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
            {
                Width = 50,
                Height = 50,
                VerticalPosition = 80,
                HorizontalPosition = 280,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });
            //添加第四个五角星到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
            {
                Width = 50,
                Height = 50,
                VerticalPosition = 160,
                HorizontalPosition = 280,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });
            //添加第五个五角星到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
            {
                Width = 50,
                Height = 50,
                VerticalPosition = 220,
                HorizontalPosition = 210,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });

 

步骤6:绘制贰个日本国旗,须求组合造型矩形和圆形,并填写颜色

//绘制一个矩形并添加到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Rectangle)
            {
                Width = 900,
                Height = 500,
                VerticalPosition = 700,
                HorizontalPosition = 600,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.WhiteSmoke,
                StrokeColor = Color.WhiteSmoke,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });
            //绘制一个圆形并添加到形状组合
            shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Ellipse)
            {
                Width = 250,
                Height = 250,
                VerticalPosition = 800,
                HorizontalPosition = 900,
                LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
                FillColor = Color.Red,
                StrokeColor = Color.Red,
                StrokeWeight = 1,
            });

 

步骤7:保存文书档案

//保存并打开文档
doc.SaveToFile("InsertShapegroups.docx", FileFormat.Docx2010);
System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("InsertShapegroups.docx");

 

累积效应:

图片 5

(这时候的图样是构成后的功效,任性拖动图形不会冒出种种形态分离、错位的景况。)

漫天代码:

图片 6图片 7

  1 using Spire.Doc;
  2 using Spire.Doc.Documents;
  3 using Spire.Doc.Fields;
  4 using System.Drawing;
  5 
  6 namespace InsertShapesGroup_Doc
  7 {
  8     class Program
  9     {
 10         static void Main(string[] args)
 11         {
 12             //创建一个Document实例并添加section及paragraph
 13             Document doc = new Document();
 14             Section sec = doc.AddSection();
 15             Paragraph para1 = sec.AddParagraph();
 16             //添加文字,并应用格式到文字
 17             para1.AppendText("中日文化交流");
 18             ParagraphStyle style1 = new ParagraphStyle(doc);
 19             style1.Name = "titleStyle";
 20             style1.CharacterFormat.Bold = true;
 21             style1.CharacterFormat.FontName = "隶书";
 22             style1.CharacterFormat.FontSize = 30f;
 23             doc.Styles.Add(style1);
 24             para1.ApplyStyle("titleStyle");
 25             para1.Format.HorizontalAlignment = HorizontalAlignment.Center;
 26 
 27             //实例化段落2
 28             Paragraph para2 = sec.AddParagraph();
 29             //创建一个形状组合并设置大小
 30             ShapeGroup shapegr = para2.AppendShapeGroup(300, 300);
 31 
 32             //添加一个矩形到形状组合
 33             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Rectangle)
 34             {
 35                 Width = 900,
 36                 Height = 500,
 37                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
 38                 FillColor = Color.Red,
 39                 StrokeColor = Color.Red,                
 40                 StrokeWeight = 1,
 41             });
 42 
 43             //添加第一个五角星到形状组合
 44             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
 45             {
 46                 Width = 100,
 47                 Height = 100,
 48                 VerticalPosition = 90,
 49                 HorizontalPosition = 90,
 50                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
 51                 FillColor = Color.Yellow,
 52                 StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
 53                 StrokeWeight = 1,
 54             });
 55             //添加第二个五角星到形状组合
 56             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
 57             {
 58                 Width = 50,
 59                 Height = 50,
 60                 VerticalPosition = 40,
 61                 HorizontalPosition = 210,
 62                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
 63                 FillColor = Color.Yellow,
 64                 StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
 65                 StrokeWeight = 1,
 66             });
 67             //添加第三个五角星到形状组合
 68             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
 69             {
 70                 Width = 50,
 71                 Height = 50,
 72                 VerticalPosition = 80,
 73                 HorizontalPosition = 280,
 74                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
 75                 FillColor = Color.Yellow,
 76                 StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
 77                 StrokeWeight = 1,
 78             });
 79             //添加第四个五角星到形状组合
 80             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
 81             {
 82                 Width = 50,
 83                 Height = 50,
 84                 VerticalPosition = 160,
 85                 HorizontalPosition = 280,
 86                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
 87                 FillColor = Color.Yellow,
 88                 StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
 89                 StrokeWeight = 1,
 90             });
 91             //添加第五个五角星到形状组合
 92             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Star)
 93             {
 94                 Width = 50,
 95                 Height = 50,
 96                 VerticalPosition = 220,
 97                 HorizontalPosition = 210,
 98                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
 99                 FillColor = Color.Yellow,
100                 StrokeColor = Color.Yellow,
101                 StrokeWeight = 1,
102             });
103 
104             //绘制一个矩形并添加到形状组合
105             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Rectangle)
106             {
107                 Width = 900,
108                 Height = 500,
109                 VerticalPosition = 700,
110                 HorizontalPosition = 600,
111                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
112                 FillColor = Color.WhiteSmoke,
113                 StrokeColor = Color.Wheat,
114                 StrokeWeight = 1,
115             });
116             //绘制一个圆形并添加到形状组合
117             shapegr.ChildObjects.Add(new ShapeObject(doc, ShapeType.Ellipse)
118             {
119                 Width = 250,
120                 Height = 250,
121                 VerticalPosition = 800,
122                 HorizontalPosition = 900,
123                 LineStyle = ShapeLineStyle.Single,
124                 FillColor = Color.Red,
125                 StrokeColor = Color.Red,
126                 StrokeWeight = 1,
127             });    
128 
129             //保存并打开文档
130             doc.SaveToFile("InsertShapegroups.docx", FileFormat.Docx2010);
131             System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("InsertShapegroups.docx");
132         }
133     }
134 }

View Code

 

以上全部是关于Word中绘制图形形状的剧情。如需转发,请评释出处!

多谢阅读!

  三、get()

  平日状态下,服务器程序不符合併行编制程序。大超级多服务器本人就全体并行本领,在服务器上实行并行编制程序,将裁减本身的并行处理工科夫,不会有实际的平价。

  四、copy()

  并行编制程序分类:1、数据交互  2、职责并行

  五、pop()和popitem()

       数据交互是指有恢宏的数据必要管理,並且每一块数据的管理进程是并行独立的。

  六、update()

       职务并行是亟需施行大气职责,并且每一种任务的实行进度是宗旨独立的。

  七、课时26课后习题及答案

  数据交互的三种做法:

 

    1、使用 Parallel.ForEach 方法

字典是Python中天下第一的映照类型,字典不是体系。假诺在类别中筹算为三个不设有之处赋值时,会报错;可是若是在字典中,会自动创造相应的键并增添对应的值进去。

    2、使用 PLINQ,它为LINQ 查询提供了 AsParallel 扩展。

*******************

       比较:跟PLINQ 相比,Parallel 对财富尤其温馨,Parallel 与系统中的别的进程协作得相比较好 , 而PLINQ 会试图让具有的 CPU 来举行本进度。

一、fromkeys()

        Parallel 的败笔是它太明朗。比较多情状下,PLINQ 的代码越发美貌。

*******************

      并行管理有贰个要命重要的轨道:各样职分块要尽量的互相独立。 只要任务块相互独立,并行的性质就能成就最优。后生可畏旦在多少个线程中国共产党享状态,必得以协作情势访谈程序的情状时,程序的并行性就变差了。

fromkeys()方法用于创建并赶回叁个新的字典,它有多少个参数:第多少个参数是字典的键;第二个参数是可选的,是传入键对应的值。假若不可能提供,那么暗中认可是None。比方:

  职务并行中利用八个Task来表示职责。

>>> dict = {}
>>> dict.fromkeys((1,2,3))
{1: None, 2: None, 3: None}
>>> dict1 = {}
>>> dict1.fromkeys((1,2,3))
{1: None, 2: None, 3: None}
>>> dict2 = {}
>>> dict2.fromkeys((1,2,3),"Number")
{1: 'Number', 2: 'Number', 3: 'Number'}
>>> dict3 = {}
>>> dict3.fromkeys((1,2,3),("one","two","three"))
{1: ('one', 'two', 'three'), 2: ('one', 'two', 'three'), 3: ('one', 'two', 'three')}

  

最后多个例子,告诉我们,不能够想天然,fromkeys()方法并不会把'one', 'two', 'three'分别赋值给1、2和3,因为fromkeys()把('one', 'two', 'three')当成壹个值了。

  并行职责错误管理:

 

  由于操作是并行处理的,多少个特别就能同期发出。系统会把那个特别封装在 AggregateException 类中,在程序中抛出代码。

*******************************************

  AggregateException 类型有多少个实用的 Flatten 和 Handle 方法,用来简化错误管理的代码:

二、keys()、values()、items()

  

*******************************************

try
 {
     Parallel.Invoke(() => { throw new Exception(); },
             () => { throw new Exception(); });
 }
 catch (AggregateException ex)
 {
     ex.Handle(exception =>
     {
     Trace.WriteLine(exception);
     return true; // “已经处理”
     });
 }                    

做客字典的艺术有:keys()、values()、items()

 

keys()用于再次回到字典中的键,values()用于再次来到字典中的全数值,那么items()当然正是重临字典中的全数的键值对(也正是项)啦。举例:

>>> dict1 = {}
>>> dict1 = dict1.fromkeys(range(12),"赞")
>>> dict1.keys()
dict_keys([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11])
>>> dict1.values()
dict_values(['赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞', '赞'])
>>> dict1.items()
dict_items([(0, '赞'), (1, '赞'), (2, '赞'), (3, '赞'), (4, '赞'), (5, '赞'), (6, '赞'), (7, '赞'), (8, '赞'), (9, '赞'), (10, '赞'), (11, '赞')])

字典能够十分大,有个别时候我们并不知道提供的项是否在字典中设有,即便不设有,Python就能够报错:

>>> print(dict1[32])
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#20>", line 1, in <module>
    print(dict1[32])
KeyError: 32

 

*************

三、get()

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